The wilderness of the past turned into places

Social and economic development in Xinjiang attracted more inland people, who often moved there on a family basis, which resulted in population growth there and further flourishing of urban commerce and trade. During that time, Urumqi was “a land reachable from all directions with plenty of shops, wide streets and many people, where all kinds of entertainment and artisans could be found, and whose prosperity topped all other places out of the Pass”四.As to Ili City, the description goes like, “with its commercial markets and farmland, many people travelled through the city, tradesmen earned reasonable profits there, and villagers lived next to each other, able to hear the noises of their neighbors’ roosters and barking dogs. The wilderness of the past turned into places no different from the inland”四.However, as the external conditions changed and the internal social conflicts escalated gradually in the first half of the 19th century, Xinjiang was thrown into increasingly frequent social turmoil.


  1. Domestic and Foreign Menace
    1. Anti-Qing Risings and Feudalist Separate Rule

After the Opium War, China went into the semi-colonial semifeudal society and the Qing court was so weakened that it could no longer govern Xinjiang as effectively as it would have wished.

Local officials reinforced political oppression and economic exploitation of people of all ethnic groups in order to secure their rule, which led to the escalation of all types of social conflicts and consequently, more and more fierce resistance from the people. Influenced by the Tai-Ping Heavenly Kingdom movement and the insurrection of Hui people in Shaanxi and Gansu, Xinjiang people also took to massive anti-Qing uprisings in 1864. In June of that year, some farmers at the construction site of the irrigation works by the Weigan River in Kuqa, who were unable to pay grain taxes, went into uprising as they could no longer bear the fatigue and torture. Farmers of all ethnic groups in Kuqa responded enthusiastically and joined them. The uprising force captured the city and killed the Administration Minister of Kuqa and other feudal officials as well as 8 begs, thus putting an end to the Qing rule in Kuqa. Their victory tremendously thrilled people in the surrounding areas who were also engaged in the anti-feudal struggles. Within 10 days, people in Bugur (today’s Luntai), Baicheng, Korla and Karashar (today’s Yanqi) followed suit and the uprisings grew bigger.

Revolt broke out in Urumqi on July 15-16, 1864, which Arte chino was led by Akhond Tuoming (Todlin) from Hezhou (today’s Linxia of Gansu Province) and Suohuanzhang, Shulizhongjuntibiaocanjiang(a military post) of the local green camp. The rebels took Hancheng(Dihua City) and besieged Mancheng (Gongning City) on the day of uprising and expanded into neighbouring areas. People of Hui origin in Changji, Qitai, Muri, Suilai (today’s Manas) and Kulkarawusu (today’s Usu) went into rebellion upon hearing the news and captured those cities one after another. On January 27 of the next year, people in Tacheng also revolted under the leadership of Suyude. They seized stored munitions and fought the city.


Samanid Dynasty of Central Asia

The Islamic faith in Xinjiang came from Central Asia. In 893 AD, the Samanid Dynasty of Central Asia went to war against the Karakhanid Dynasty in the name of Islamic “Jihad” and took large pieces of land from the latter. The Karakhanid Dynasty banned Islam within its territory. However, out of political need, it accepted the prince of Samanid Dynasty who sought asylum there due to domestic power struggles and allowed him to build a mosque in Artux, which was the first mosque in the history of Xinjiang. The Samanid prince secretly disseminated Islam; Satuk Buchara responded favorably to his preaching, initiated a coup d’etat in 910 AD by utilizing Islam and seized power. After that, Satuk Buchara Khan went all out to promote Islam. In 960 AD, 200,000 tents, totaling 600,000-800,000 Turks accepted Islam, and Islam became the state faith of Karakhanid Dynasty.

The rulers of Karakhanid Dynasty identified themselves with Islam because they wanted to pressure people at home and expand territory abroad through the Islamic spirit of absolute obedience and“Jihad” theory. Therefore, after defining Islam as the state religion, the Karakhanid Dynasty immediately began its “Jihad” against two Buddhist kingdoms in the Western Regions, Yutian and Gaochang Uighur. The religious war between Karakhanid Dynasty and Yutian broke out first. It was the longest religious war at the largest scale and with the deepest impact in the history of Xinjiang. People sometimes called it the One-hundred-year War. It was a bitter and ugly war. The kingdom of Yutian was annihilated in 1006, but Buddhist resistance continued until about 1062. After that, the over 1,000 years’ rule of Buddhist forces in Yutian came to an end and Buddhism left the southern part of the Tarim Basin.

While the war on Yutian was still going on, Karakhanid Dynasty launched another “Jihad” against Gaochang Uighur Kingdom in 1017. However, due to the fierce resistance la longitud muralla china from Gaochang Uighur and the internal conflicts in the Karakhanid Dynasty, particularly its split into the eastern and Western parts in 1041, the “Jihad” failed without achieving its end, putting a stop for the time being to the Islamic Futuhat by force.

During the reign of the Western Liao Dynasty (1130-1221), the rulers believed in Buddhism but were tolerant towards other religions. In that context, peaceful spread of Islam began. With Kashgar as the centre, Islam was spread along the two routes on the verge of the Tarim Basin, to Yengisar, Yecheng, Shache, Khotan and Qiemo through the southeastern route and to Artux, Bachu and Aksu through the northeastern route. However, Kuqa and Gaochang remained hurdles for Islamic eastward dissemination.

Languages of the Present

In 1124, Khitan noble Yollig Taxin split away from the Liao Kingdom and moved westward. He built the Western Liao Empire and ruled the Western Regions. The major languages used in the Western Liao Dynasty were Chinese and Khitan. Copper seals with Khitan characters on both the front and the back were discovered in Ili, Xinjiang, which proved the use of Khitan language in the Western Liao government. It is assumed that both the Khitan and Chinese officials in the Western Liao government could speak and write Khitan. Yollig Chucai recorded in Volume 8 of Collection of Works of Zhanran Jushi that a Chinese called Li Shichang, who was granted lordship by the Western Liao government, was capable of using Khitan language. In early 13th century, the Mongols wiped out the Western Liao Empire, and Khitan became a dead language.

Among all the ethnic groups that have long settled in Xinjiang, the Han and Hui people use Chinese; the Uygurs, Mongols, Kazak, Kirgiz, Xibe and Russ each have their own spoken and written languages; and the Tajik, Uzbek, Tatar and Daur have their own spoken languages. Other ethnic groups moving into Xinjiang later also have their spoken languages.

(1)     Chinese

Chinese, as a language, belongs to the Chinese subgroup of the Sino-Tibetan family. The Chinese script was the earliest script that was found in the Western Regions. Despite the vicissitudes in languages in the Western Regions throughout its history, Chinese was present almost all the time.

In the 2nd century BC, Zhang Qian was sent by the Han Dynasty as an envoy to the Western Regions, which began the history of the Chinese language in that region. In 60 BC (the 2nd year of

Shenjue reign), the Han government set up Office of Protector of Western Regions; as a result, “decrees of Han reached the Western Regions”, and Chinese became the official spoken and written language among states in that region. According Viaje variedad de establecimientos culturales shanghai to the chapter on the Western Regions in Book of Han, “the total number of such states was fifty, and from the director of translation, director of the city, jun, jian, li, dalu, baizhang to noble and king, all wore seals and ribbons issued by the Han government”. This was the official record of the acceptance of Han rule by states in the Western Regions and the installation of directors of translation to ensure the use of Chinese. Numerous discovered materials provided further evidence for the use of Chinese in all aspects. The use of Chinese script in local governments, military strongholds and commercial goods was exemplified by the “Seal of Guiyi (Allegiance) Qiang in the Han Dynasty” discovered in the old city of Yushgeti in Xayar County, over 70 slips recording the agricultural activities of the military discovered in the site of Tuyin on the northern bank of Lop Nur, and brocade found in the Eastern Han tomb at Niya, with Chinese characters reading “longevity and good luck to posterity” on it. There was another piece discovered in Niya, which was probably a wood slip for presenting gifts, with Chinese words of “Xiuwusongye wishes to pay regards through this jade” on the front and “held by Xiaodazi Jiujian” on the back as well as “Madame Qiemo” on it, showing the penetration of Chinese into the life of average local residents there.


Southbound Uighur

After the collapse of the khanate, some Uighur people moved south along the Cantian Khan Road in two groups. The more important group was the “Thirteen Divisions Close to the Kharis Tent’’, headed by Ushi Tegin; the other headed by Great Tegin Wenmos. The two southbound Uighur groups were hostile towards each other; therefore, they went south with different motivations.

The group led by Wenmos and Nashcho became subordinate to the Tang government after entering the area to the south of the desert. The group led by Ushi Tegin consisted of most of “nobles and senior officials”圆 of the previous khanate, who aimed at restoring the khanate. On their route to the south, they recognized Ushi Tegin as Oge Khan. After the Uighur Khanate fell apart, the “Thirteen Divisions Close to the Kharis Tent” was still the focus of attention of all Uighur s. At least in name, Oge Khan was the khan for all divisions of Uighur, including the westbound Uighur. Therefore, before the demise of the southbound Uighur regime, the head of the westbound Uighur Pang Tegin always called himself Yabgou, or the deputy king.

Upon arriving in the south, Oge Khan asked the Tang government for military help to fight Qirqiz in the north, but was turned down. In 847 AD (the 7th year of Huichang reign). Oge was assassinated by his subordinates. The next year, the regime of the southbound Uighur was shattered to pieces, so was the attempt to restore the previous Uighur Khannate.

The two groups of southbound Uighur were estimated to be over 100,000 people, including nearly 50,000 in the group led by Wenmos and over 50,000 led by Oge.^ After the disintegration of the southbound Uighur, most of them entered the Central Plains and mixed with the Han people. As to the group led by Wenmos, some were forced into military service by the Tang government as cavalries, and others settled down near Datong and lived on land farming. In Cave No. 61 at Mogaoku, Dunhuang, there is a fresco of the 10th century about Wutai Mountain in Shanxi, with “Teli Temple’’in it. It was a proof that up until the Five-Dynasty period and early Song Dynasty, the descendants of these Uighur people still lived in that locality in communities. The top brass of the group led by Wenmos later moved to Chang’an, together with their families, and were “given grand mansions at Yonglefang” The 7,000 tents previously under the rule ofNashcho and 30,000 to 40,000 captured and surrendered Uighurs from the group formerly led by Oge Khan were mostly “forced into military service all over the country” by the Tang government Casas de te en beijing,chengdu. They spread very widely, and some were sent as far as the Yangtze and Hui River areas函.In addition, many Uighur cavalries became subordinate to frontier generals of the Tang Dynasty. Li Maoxun and his son Li Keju were such Uighur commanders under the Border Governor of Youzhou Zhang Zhongwu. These Uighur nobles who moved south to the inland achieved many military feats thanks to their brave and able Uighur cavalry troops, and were granted noble titles and official posts by the Tang government, later becoming part of the ruling elite of the central kingdom Particularly, many ethnically Uighur generals played important parts in the conflicts towards the end of the Tang Dynasty and during the Five-Dynasty period

Central Plains in Yizhou(today’s Hami region)

The Tang Dynasty applied the same province-county administration system as that on the Central Plains in Yizhou(today’s Hami region), Xizhou (today’s Turpan region) and Tingzhou (today’s Changji and Urumqi region) in the east of the Western Regions. The province was headed by a Civil Governor, supported by three deputies, called bie-jia, zhang-shi and si-ma, who were in charge of administrative and military affairs respectively. In a province there were 6 divisions sharing responsibilities for protocol, storage, civil households, military affairs, criminal law and construction, each headed by a Staff. The county was headed by a County Magistrate (xian-ling), supported by three deputies, xian-cheng, zhu-bu andxian-wei, each with his own portfolio. Under the level of county there were townships and villages. The head of the township was qi-lao (or fu- lao), and that of the village lizheng. Economically, those administrative divisions in the Western Regions applied the same population-based land distribution system (also known as “Jun-tian-zhf”) and taxation and corvee system (also known as “Zuyong-diao-zhf ”) as those on the Central Plains. Militarily, the Fu-bing-zhi (a peace-time-farmer and-war-timesoldier system) was extended to wider areas in the Western Regions, including both the eastern part and the western areas up to the Congling Mountains. Beyond the Congling Mountains, some areas also had military prefectures set up by the Tang government.

From the above it is clear that the Tang Dynasty had a governance structure in the Western Regions combining the frontier liaison system and the inland province-county system. In fact, the liaison offices served both of the two functions. Such a “parallel”system reflected the transition from the liaison system to a regular sub-national administrative system in the Western Regions, which would put the central government in a better position to apply more direct and tighter control over the Western Regions and enable faster integration between the frontier areas and the Central Plains in their economic and social development. However, the“transitional period” was featured by the “separate governance of the Han and minority people”, although in practice, “the top level was more integrated than the lower ones”. To put it into specifics, the two Offices of Grand Protector of Anxi and Beiting, which together administered the whole Teleferico en terraza arrozales en longsheng of the Western Regions, applied“integrated governance of the Han and minorities”. Under the two Offices of Grand Protectors, there were either provinces or counties of the regular administrative system or Offices of Protectors and Governors of the liaison system, which separated governance of the Han and minorities. The two governance systems even existed in the same area.

Historical Development of the Multi-Ethnic Region

In the early days of the Western Han Dynasty, the city states dotting around the Tarim Basin to the south of the Tianshan Mountains were called the “Thirty-six States”, among which Loulan(northwest of today’s Lop Nur) in the east was the most powerful. To the north of the Tianshan Mountains were the Sak, Usun and Hujie people, who mainly relied on herding for a living, sometimes complemented by hunting. Among those people Usun (near today’s Hami) and Hujie (south of today’s Altay Mountains) were among the strongest. In addition, there were the Jiankun tribe along the upper reach of today’s Yenisei River, and the Dingling people living next to Hujie and Jiankun. Both of the two tribes were subject to the Huns.

States in the Western Regions were very unbalanced in terms of the stage of social development, yet basically they all belonged to the class society. Those states also varied in size, as their population ranged from a thousand to tens of thousands. “States” as they were called, they were nothing more than a group of people with a city or a tribe as their centre. On the whole, the Western Regions were in a state of “no unity, with each group having its own elders and troops”切.

The Huns were at their prime time under the reign of Junchen Chanyu (161 BC to 126 BC), with their influence from the Daxing’ anling Mountains (east) to the Talas River (west of the Western Regions), and from north of the desert (north) to the Great Bend of the Yellow River (south). The ruling body of the Huns was composed of the Royal Court of Chanyu, the Left Prince and the Right Prince. The Royal Court of Chanyu was the centre of the regime, while the Left and Right Princes controlled the east and the west respectively. After being unified by the Huns, the Western Regions were first put under the administration of the Right Prince, and later on, his subordinate, the Rizhu Prince. In 92 BC (the first year of Zhenghe reign) Viajes Dique (waitan) de Shanghái , the Rizhu Prince installed local official in the Western Regions. Known as Tongpu Duwei, that official roamed between Yanqi (today’s Yanqi County), Weixu (southeast of today’s Hoxud County) and Yuli (today’s Ziniquan, south of Yanqi County) and levied taxes and collected tributes from the states there.

Xinjiang is rich in glaciers

There are 570-odd rivers of different volume in Xinjiang. Most of them are continental, originating from mountain glaciers, forming a lake at the end of their route, or simply disappearing in the desert. The major rivers are the Tarim, the Ertix, the Ili and the Kaidu. Running 2,137 kilometers, the Tarim is the longest continental river in China. Originating from the Pamirs, Kunlun and Tianshan Mountains, it winds its way in the northern part of the Tarim Basin before arriving the Titema Lake and Lop Nur. The Ili River is Xinjiang’s biggest continental river in terms of volume. It first twists in the Ili Valley and then flows westward out of China into the Balkhash Lake. The Ertix is the only river in China that flows into the Arctic Ocean. Xinjiang also has a number of lakes, among which 139 are over 1 square kilometer in size, totaling 5,500 square kilometers; 11 are over 100 square kilometers and 4 are over 500 square kilometers. The Bosten Lake amidst the valleys in the Tianshan Mountains is the biggest fresh water lake in Xinjiang. The Aydingkol Lake in the Turpan Depression is the lowest lake in China. The Kanas Lake in the dense forests of the Altay Mountains is a typical ice- eroded lake, with an altitude of 1,370 meters at the surface. The maximum depth of the Kanas is 188.5 meters, making it the second deepest lake in China. The Sayram, a lake on high mountain, is renowned for its “subtle colors, smooth surface, mirrorlike reflection and beauty beyond words”. To the northeast of Urumqi is the Tianchi Lake (or literally, Heavenly Lake) hidden in the depth of the Tianshan Mountains. Small in size, it boasts very nice scenery though. Among other famous lakes are the Ulungur and the Ebinur.

Xinjiang is rich in glaciers, with 18,600 pieces of glaciers totaling 26,300 square kilometers in size, accounting for 21.6% of the mountain glaciers in Asia, and 50% of China’s total glacier reserve. The melting glaciers constitute 21% (about 17 billion cubic meters) of the river volume in Xinjiang China Over 80% of Xinjiang’s arable land is irrigated. The annual surface runoff in the whole region is 88.4 billion cubic meters, extractable underground water 25.2 billion cubic meters, theoretical hydropower reserve 33.5 million kilowatts, and exploitable installed capacity 17.96 million kilowatts.

Thanksgiving Travel Tips

Thanksgiving travel can be stressful, but don’t let getting from here to there set the tone for your entire holiday. Whether traveling near or far, timing is the key to avoiding some of the most typical travel woes of the season.

Driving Or Flying, Choose Well

When driving, plotting a “fastest route” doesn’t mean you’ll arrive sooner since travel during this time can be unpredictable. If traffic is a particular concern, consider a scenic drive that might be longer but less traffic. The scenic route may offer a more pleasant travel experience and could possibly get you to your destination just as quickly.

If you’re flying, book early. If you have gifts to bring back or forth, ship them (or give gift cards) – pack light! Airports are high stress areas, especially over the Thanksgiving holiday. Be sure to plan for the stress of crowds, delays and even cancellations by getting proper rest ahead of your travel time, and bringing only what you will need for your stay. Make sure you have access to all that is important, medications, your ID, emergency information, phone chargers, but don’t over pack – streamline your packing, but plan for a delay – could be an hour… in some cases travel is delayed by a day. Don’t be caught off guard.

Regardless of how you get there, always opt to travel on off-peak days and times, whenever possible – while others will have this idea, many can’t. If you can, be one of those who do. Try to plan your route or layovers to fall outside of any typical rush hour congestion. Travel very late at night or very early in the morning.

Be Flexible & Have Room To Breathe

Give yourself room to breathe. In the unfortunate circumstance that one of the stressors is being at the destination itself, then try to put yourself in vacation mode. Stay at a hotel. Allow for some “me” time during your travel, listen to music or audio books, and watch a movie, do a word puzzle. For some, getting there, is only part of the stress – so remember to make your destination plan as enjoyable as your travel plans.  For more travel news and tips visit my travel blog.       

Tips For Understanding What Green Energy Technology Is All About

Many people do not consider the impact they have on the environment by using everyday appliances. Yet all of your consumption over time can cause real harm to the environment. It is possible to make use of green technology to reduce your home’s impact on the environment. The following tips will give you an idea of how to use green energy. If you have a green energy invention idea InventHelp can help you.

Solar water heaters are a great option and can significantly decrease the cost involved with heating all of the water in your home. This is also a very efficient way to heat water and keep it at the proper temperature. While some upgrades cost more initially, they can qualify you for deductions on your tax return for using green energy.

Instead of using your air conditioner in the summer, try to wear fabrics that are natural. Moisture-wicking athletic fabrics pull moisture away from your skin, creating a cooling sensation. Wear lighter colors since warmer ones can make you warm and cause you to rely on the A/C.

Reduce your energy consumption by unplugging anything that is not in use, especially battery chargers. Whether you are charging your device or not, chargers for laptops, mp3 players, cellphones and other electronics keep drawing electrical power as long as they stay plugged in.

Your furnace filters should be replaced annually, and inspected for monthly cleanings. Also install filters on air registers. This stops debris from blocking heating ducts.

Maintain your refrigerator. Your fridge consumes a ton of energy, so make sure it’s in good shape. Every week, check and see if dust has accumulated near the heating coils. If it has, take the time to remove it. Check the door seal for dirt, debris and leaks.

Get rid of your old water heater and put in a green, tankless one. Even though you still need electricity or gas in order to heat water with these tanks, they use only the water you need instead of always keeping your whole tank heated. Tankless heaters are available in models that supply the entire house or a single faucet with hot water.

Find out about federal and local rebates for updates about renewable energy for your home. In some instances, the local company gives rebates for upgrading to green tech. If not, there might be tax credits or deductions available from the federal or state government. You’ll find that these discounts can effectively reduce the price of adding green energy alternatives into your home.

Choose to get most of your correspondence via email. In other words, go paperless as much as possible. You help both you and other businesses you communicate with save resources and energy. This also keeps the environment in better shape for everyone.

Look around for ways to “go green;” if you want to help conserve natural resources, there are many options available. You don’t have to invest a lot of time or money; simply clean out your furnace filters and adjust your thermostat while you’re gone. Lowering the temperature of your water heater can save energy as well. Every little thing you can do will help.

You should heat your home with biofuel. Oil, wood and animal or vegetable fats are used to make this fuel. In many cases, if your furnace is propane, a professional can make the necessary changes that will allow you to heat with a blend of fuels. Most furnaces use between 20 to 99% bio-diesel fuels. Always consult with professionals prior to using this type of fuel in the home.

If you really want to take a bit out of your fuel consumption, try making more extensive use of carpools, even to destinations other than the office. IF you’ve got kids, create a carpool system with other parents in the neighborhood. If you have friends or family nearby, consider combining grocery trips together, alternating driving duties.

An old, yet good tip, for those looking to save on energy is to turn off your lights whenever you leave a room. Shutting off your lights when you leave a room is a simple act, but it will surprise you by the amount of energy it saves. In addition, you will save money on your utility bill.

Consider changing out a standard toilet for one that is built to save water. Toilets account for fifty percent of the water used in a home. A water-saving toilet cuts that by about 70 percent.

Use automatic motion or sound sensors on the lights in high-traffic rooms. These sensors will turn lights on and off automatically depending on if someone’s in the room, saving energy and money. Add these sensors to your outdoor lights, as well.

Responsible light usage should be a top priority in your home. Don’t turn on the lights until a certain time, during the brighter months. Try using dimmers to reduce the usage of lights.

There are a few ways to conserve energy when you do laundry. You can use a moisture control setting to turn off the dryer when laundry has dried. The spin speed can be set to high to keep the moisture in clothes to a minimum which makes drying time reduced. Clean the dryer filters regularly.

Put your refrigerator and freezer units in a low-temperature location in your home so that they stay cool with less energy. They should be kept out of sunlight as well as away from heating vents. Heat from any source will cause these appliances to run longer.

Investing in a washing machine that is front loading is a great way to go green. Not only do they consume less water than a typical top-loader, they are also more efficient in cleaning your laundry. This will help you save money on both your electricity and water bills.

You may not have thought much about the environment, and you probably aren’t alone. You can start to change, though, now that you have more information about using green energy. Using the tips that were given to you, you can make use of green energy in your home and avoid making a negative impact on the environment.

Visiting The La Ciudad Prohibida

China has always managed to attract its own share of tourists over the past few decades. This country has something to offer and to satisfy the desires of any ardent tourist. In fact, there are multiple reasons that could explain why china has always been the number one tourist destination spot throughout all these years. The capital city of Beijing attracts hordes of interested visitors from all parts of the globe every year. The next time you plan to visit the country, please make it a point to take a tour of the la ciudad prohibida (Forbidden City).

The Forbidden City is one of the world’s most preserved imperial palace that has its own share of stories and adventures. It can be astonishing to learn that this palace has 9,999 rooms and the same complex took care of the residential requirements of at least 24 emperors (who reigned during the Ming and Qing dynasties). The construction of this palace complex took an exhaustive period of 14 years. Emperor Chengzu had ordered the construction of the palace, according to the specifications laid out by the ancient Chinese astrologers. The palace gets the queer name because people required special permissions to enter the palace complex from the emperor.

Currently located just north of the Tiananmen Square, this palace complex has a rectangular shape and covers around 74 hectares. The 10-meter high walls surrounding the complex along with the 52-meter moat are some of the characteristics of the palace. Standing in the Forbidden City, one could get an excellent view of the palace as well as the rest of the neighboring regions. This complex comprised of two sections – termed as the northern and the southern section. It was from the southern section that the emperors ruled firmly over the land while they reserved the northern section of the complex to live with their royal families.

For over five centuries, the Forbidden City served the requirements of many emperors. Perhaps this could explain why the palace complex has many rarities associated with it. One can come across rare curiosities and even treasures in the different parts of the complex. By 1987, the UNESCO listed the site as a world cultural heritage and ever since then, the fame of the palace began to grow with many tourists visiting the location actively throughout the year. It is interesting to note that the actual construction of the complex began in 1407.

By 1420, the construction of the complex was over and in the next year, the reigning emperor shifted the capital city to Beijing. There are different versions of how the workers from far and wide toiled hard in order to complete the construction of the complex. Ingenious construction techniques deployed by the artisans of those eras paved ways for the interesting theories about how all of the different classes of workers must have toiled in tandem. Today, you will come across many tour groups offering comprehensive packages aimed at educating the tourists about the importance of this complex.