Asir Daur ethnic township was established in Tacheng


Russia Nationality They live scattered in the present Ili, Tacheng, Altay and Urumchi, with a population of 11,600. They first migrated from Tsarist Russia in the 1920′s; and before and after Russian Revolution, quite a few migrated and settled in Xinjiang. They were once called “domesticated group”, and their community villages called “domestication village”. After the founding of New China, they were renamed as Russia Nationality. Those living in cities and towns are mostly working in various industries and commerce, transport and service sectors, and those in rural areas mostly working in agriculture, horticulture and breeding. They use Russian language and

writing, which belongs to Slavic Branch of Indo-European languages, most of them believe in the Eastern Orthodoxy, with a small number of them believing in Protestantism(or Christianism) and Catholicism.

Daur Nationality They are distributed in Tacheng Prefecture in north Xinjiang today, with a population of 6,884. After the founding of New China, Asir Daur ethnic township was established in Tacheng. “Daur” is what the people of this ethnic group call themselves, in the historical records of Han language, there are different transliteration terms such as “Dahur”, “Dahuur”,

“Dahuli”,“Daahur”, and the paraphrase in Han language is “pioneer”. They are mostly offspring of the “Soren Camp” garrison army transferred from Soren area in the northeast by the Qing Dynasty in the 1760s, hence they were once called “Soren people”, after the founding of New China, their original name was restored. They are mainly engaged in agricultural production, and some also in animal husbandry. Their language belongs to Mongolian Branch of Altaic Family, they have no writing of their own, and once used Manchu writing, today the Han writing is commonly used. They mainly believe in Shamanism, and a small number of them believe in Northern Buddhism

Tartar Nationality They are distributed in the present Urumchi, Changji, Qitai and Altay, with a population of 4,950. On July 25, 1989, the only Tartar ethnic township in China was established in Daquangou of Qitai County. They originally belonged to Mongolian tribe, and “Dada” and “Tatar” Lhasa reisen were different transliteration terms in history. They were developed starting from the 15th century by the mutual blending of Mongolian on west expedition and the Kipchaks on the Eurasian Plain and the Bulgars in the Volga River basin. The Tartar people in Xinjiang mostly migrated in the 19th century from Kazan of Russia and Semirechye and Zaysan of Central Asia, or came for business purposes. Most of them are engaged in commerce, and a small number of them working in agriculture, animal husbandry and handicrafts. Their language belongs to Turkic Branch of Altaic Family, and the writing was originally the alphabetic writing based on Cyril letters. They generally believe in Islam.


What good would that serve


1949, Tao Zhiyue was surrounded by progressive forces advocating peaceful uprising, whose core members were his chief of staff Tao Jinchu and the garrison commander in Southern Xinjiang Zhao Xiguang. Those insisting on resistance were some reactionaries who accounted for the minority in number, headed by Ye Cheng (commander of Division No. 78), Luo Shuren (commander of Brigade No. 179), and Ma Chengxiang (commander of the Fifth Cavalry Army). In August of that year, Tao Zhiyue publicly suggested taking the initiative to conduct peace negotiations and liberate Xinjiang peacefully. He remarked, “… Otherwise, it will bring only harm and no good to the country, the people and ourselves. If we did not take the initiative and did not seek peaceful liberation, 100,000 officers and soldiers would die for nothing, local law and order would be disrupted, and people would be displaced, leading to ethnic killings. If we stuck to war and forsook peace, we would definitely be bogged down and caught in the middle. What good would that serve?”圆 In the meantime, the Chairman of Xinjiang provincial government, Burhan Shahid was also surrounded by a number of people who stood for peaceful liberation of Xinjiang. One supporter of the pro-peaceful uprising forces in the provincial troops and government was General Zhang Zhizhong, who had already broken away from the Kuomintang and j oined in the revolution in Beiping.

 

The People’s Liberation Army took Lanzhou on August 26, 1949 and liberated Xining on September 5, thus laying a siege on the Kuomintang forces in Xinjiang. It required a prompt decision as to which way the Kuomintang forces there should choose. Before that, Tao Zhiyue produced, together with Zhao Xiguang, three major points for peaceful uprising after secret discussions in Yanqi of Southern Xinjiang. They included the following: first, to send someone to contact the Liberation Army once the latter approached and hand over the Kuomintang troops; second, after the hand-over, the two of them, Tao Zhiyue and Zhao Xiguang would give up all their previous responsibilities without any condition; third, to request reorganization of the Kuomintang troops free from the supervision of the “National Army” to prevent possible misconception國.After Lanzhou was liberated, Tao Zhiyue, together with the provincial government Chairman Burhan Shahid, Secretary- General Liu Mengchun, Dihua Mayor Qu Wu and the special commissioner of the foreign ministry in Xinjiang Liu Zerong, all representatives standing for peaceful resolution of the Xinjiang question within the provincial government held a special meeting with pro-fight members from the Kuomintang troops in Xinjiang, represented by Ye Cheng, Ma Chengxiang and Luo Shuren, to discuss the future of Xinjiang. At the meeting, the majority expressed willingness to accept the CPC’s conditions for peace unconditionally and achieve peaceful resolution of the Xinjiang question oficina viajes a pekin. After the meeting, Liu Mengchun and others contacted the Soviet consulategeneral in Dihua and requested contacts with the CPC through the Soviet side so as to begin negotiations. The Soviet deputy consulgeneral in Dihua Isheyev (pronunciation) immediately went to Yining and conveyed, on September 2, to Deng Liqun, the CPC liaison officer in Yining, the decision of Xinjiang side to launch an uprising and accept unconditionally the CPC’s proposal for the peaceful resolution of the Xinjiang question. He also advised Deng Liqun to go to Dihua for a face-to-face discussion with the Kuomintang troops and the provincial government of Xinjiang. In order to further ease the situation and create conditions for peaceful resolution of the Xinjiang question, on September 8, the Kuomintang troops took the initiative and withdrew from the defense line at the Manas River in the confrontation with the three regions.

 


Gongha Insurgence” and “Yining Uprising


In view of the above principles, it is only appropriate to describe the three-region revolutionary

movement in different stages according to the developments and changes in the process.

“Gongha Insurgence” was the beginning of the three-region revolutionary movement. It was conducted with the coordination between people within Xinjiang and those abroad. In early August 1944, the three Kazakh brothers persecuted by the government, Akbal, Syet and Naman escaped to Eintal (pronunciation), a town on the Soviet territory bordering on Huocheng County. In Eintal they met with Fatih Muslimov, who used to be a Soviet national living in Gongha County, serving as deputy manager of the county’s local produce trade company, but fled back to the Soviet side after being arrested for secret association. Fatih was recruited for military training in Alma Ata aimed at supporting national rejuvenation in Xinjiang. Introduced by Fatih, Akbal and his brothers traded horses for some weapons at a low price from Glibink, an arms dealer and naturalized Russian (those people were also known as “Guihua people”, or Russians who acquired Chinese nationality) who used to live in Xinjiang. Later, Akbal joined forces with Fatih and formally set up the guerrilla, which was headed by Fatih, on August 14 in the Ulastay valley of Gongha County, Xinjiang. On August 17, the guerrilla successfully ambushed a group of armed police of the county who came to search the hills and fired the first bullet of“Gongha Insurgence”. The guerrilla expanded rapidly and captured the county seat of Gongha on October 7.

In September, Ishakbeg led the Puli (today’s Taxkorgan County) armed forces, which were trained abroad, to Yining via the Soviet territory. On October 7, the “Yining Liberation Organization”set up the “Underground Revolutionary Military Headquarters”headed by Elihan Torae to organize and prepare the Yining uprising. In mid-October, a Soviet national in China, Fatye Ivanovo Lesken organized a guerrilla troop at Guozigou, a location of throat from Yining to Dihua, with the aim of cutting off reinforcement to Yining. On November 6, Abbasov, together with an armed troop led by a Soviet officer Peter Romanovic Aleksandrov equipped with sophiscated Soviet weapons came into Xinjiang from Eintal of Huocheng County and took a detour before arriving at the doorstep of Yining. Then a Military Command headed by Aleksandrov was set up on the basis of the Palacio potala lhasa tibet former “Underground Revolutionary Military Headquarters” to take charge of directing the uprising. On the same day, Lesken and the Suiding guerrilla made the first move by starting the Lucaogou insurgence and took the gateway from Yining to Dihua, thus sealing off the Kuomintang forces in Yining. By then all military preparations for the Yining armed uprising were completed. Propaganda work also began in early November. The“Yining Liberation Organization” put up posters and distributed flyers around the county seat, which included both positive slogans such as “overthrow the government that oppresses people” and“long live revolution victory” and negative provocations such as“Muslims join up to drive the Hans and Northeasterners (referring to the Northeast Anti-Japan Volunteers who entered Xinjiang via the Soviet territory in 1933-1934) out of Xinjiang” and “build East Turkistan government”. The Military Command decided to start uprising on November 7 (which was 27th anniversary of the October Revolution of the Soviet Union).

 


the location of Xinjiang in the western frontier


After the Qing government unified Xinjiang in 1759, a military office system was introduced there. The consideration behind that decision included the location of Xinjiang in the western frontier and the multiple ethnic composition as well as other historical conditions. Only in Zhendi Dao (today’s Muri to Jinghe) were there prefectures and counties, which were put under the administration of Gansu Province. In 1820, in his article Comments on Provincial Setup in the Western Regions, Gong Zizhen proposed, for the first time, the restoration to provincial establishment in Xinjiang so as to achieve the broad united rule across the country and fend off the increasingly serious border menace in the northwest. In June 1877, Zuo Zongtang, Minister Overseeing Xinjiang Military Affairs was charged to plan for the entire rehabilitation work in Xinjiang. Consistent with historical trends, he raised the issue of resuming provincial establishment in Xinjiang. According to Minister Zuo, it made good sense to establish province in Xinjiang in two aspects. First, it could solidify border defence in the northwest. Since ancient times, the northwest of China often had more border crises than the southeast. To set up province in Xinjiang and incorporate that region into the unified administrative system of the inland had significance that could not be underestimated for better border defence in the northwest and unity of the country. Second, it could facilitate early social and economic recovery and growth in the border area. Only after province and counties were set up there and run with care could there be hope for recovery. In early 1878, Zuo Zongtang put forward the proposal of establishing province in Xinjiang again. However, by that time Ili was not recovered yet, and the situation in the northwestern frontier was very grave, so the proposal was shelved again. In October 1882, Zuo Zongtang, who was Viceroy of Liangjiang at the time, presented a memorial to the emperor, asking yet again for provincial establishment in Xinjiang. He strongly advised the Qing government to seize the opportunity and make the earliest possible decision, as Xinjiang had been just recovered and the western expedition troops were still there. In addition, the newly recovered Xinjiang and its people were in desperate need of reconstruction and tranquillity, so the establishment of province there served the will of the people and contributed to social stability and economic recovery. Prompted by Zuo Zongtang and other people, the Qing government finally decided to set up province and counties in Xinjiang.

In December 1882, the Qing government began its preparations for establishing dao, ting, zhou andxian (counties) in Xinjiang and sent nearby officials to assume the newly created posts. Boundaries between and among those divisions were delimitated; posts and stations sorted out; government offices, altars, temples, warehouses and prisons renovated and built; supporting division officers and civil staff such as zhoupan, xiancheng, xunjian and fenfang appointed; and official seals given out. A massive border institutional reform was unfolded in the north and south of the Tianshan Mountains simultaneously. By the first half of 1883, the grassroots organizational structure of dao, ting, zhou and xian(counties) was preliminarily  informacion sobre china

in shape. In June, Liu Jintang advised the emperor to cancel the previous local official posts in Xinjiang such as tutung, councillor, administration and head ministers. On November 17, 1884, the Qing government officially approved provincial establishment in Xinjiang, which was announced publicly the next day. Liu Jintang and Wei Guangtao were appointed as the first Xunfu (equivalent to Provincial Governor) and Buzhengshi(deputy provincial governor, in charge of civil and financial affairs) of Xinjiang respectively, and the capital was Dihua (today’s Urumqi). At last Xinjiang Province was set up again.

 


The wilderness of the past turned into places


Social and economic development in Xinjiang attracted more inland people, who often moved there on a family basis, which resulted in population growth there and further flourishing of urban commerce and trade. During that time, Urumqi was “a land reachable from all directions with plenty of shops, wide streets and many people, where all kinds of entertainment and artisans could be found, and whose prosperity topped all other places out of the Pass”四.As to Ili City, the description goes like, “with its commercial markets and farmland, many people travelled through the city, tradesmen earned reasonable profits there, and villagers lived next to each other, able to hear the noises of their neighbors’ roosters and barking dogs. The wilderness of the past turned into places no different from the inland”四.However, as the external conditions changed and the internal social conflicts escalated gradually in the first half of the 19th century, Xinjiang was thrown into increasingly frequent social turmoil.

 

  1. Domestic and Foreign Menace
    1. Anti-Qing Risings and Feudalist Separate Rule

After the Opium War, China went into the semi-colonial semifeudal society and the Qing court was so weakened that it could no longer govern Xinjiang as effectively as it would have wished.

Local officials reinforced political oppression and economic exploitation of people of all ethnic groups in order to secure their rule, which led to the escalation of all types of social conflicts and consequently, more and more fierce resistance from the people. Influenced by the Tai-Ping Heavenly Kingdom movement and the insurrection of Hui people in Shaanxi and Gansu, Xinjiang people also took to massive anti-Qing uprisings in 1864. In June of that year, some farmers at the construction site of the irrigation works by the Weigan River in Kuqa, who were unable to pay grain taxes, went into uprising as they could no longer bear the fatigue and torture. Farmers of all ethnic groups in Kuqa responded enthusiastically and joined them. The uprising force captured the city and killed the Administration Minister of Kuqa and other feudal officials as well as 8 begs, thus putting an end to the Qing rule in Kuqa. Their victory tremendously thrilled people in the surrounding areas who were also engaged in the anti-feudal struggles. Within 10 days, people in Bugur (today’s Luntai), Baicheng, Korla and Karashar (today’s Yanqi) followed suit and the uprisings grew bigger.

Revolt broke out in Urumqi on July 15-16, 1864, which Arte chino viajeporchina.com was led by Akhond Tuoming (Todlin) from Hezhou (today’s Linxia of Gansu Province) and Suohuanzhang, Shulizhongjuntibiaocanjiang(a military post) of the local green camp. The rebels took Hancheng(Dihua City) and besieged Mancheng (Gongning City) on the day of uprising and expanded into neighbouring areas. People of Hui origin in Changji, Qitai, Muri, Suilai (today’s Manas) and Kulkarawusu (today’s Usu) went into rebellion upon hearing the news and captured those cities one after another. On January 27 of the next year, people in Tacheng also revolted under the leadership of Suyude. They seized stored munitions and fought the city.

 


Samanid Dynasty of Central Asia


The Islamic faith in Xinjiang came from Central Asia. In 893 AD, the Samanid Dynasty of Central Asia went to war against the Karakhanid Dynasty in the name of Islamic “Jihad” and took large pieces of land from the latter. The Karakhanid Dynasty banned Islam within its territory. However, out of political need, it accepted the prince of Samanid Dynasty who sought asylum there due to domestic power struggles and allowed him to build a mosque in Artux, which was the first mosque in the history of Xinjiang. The Samanid prince secretly disseminated Islam; Satuk Buchara responded favorably to his preaching, initiated a coup d’etat in 910 AD by utilizing Islam and seized power. After that, Satuk Buchara Khan went all out to promote Islam. In 960 AD, 200,000 tents, totaling 600,000-800,000 Turks accepted Islam, and Islam became the state faith of Karakhanid Dynasty.

The rulers of Karakhanid Dynasty identified themselves with Islam because they wanted to pressure people at home and expand territory abroad through the Islamic spirit of absolute obedience and“Jihad” theory. Therefore, after defining Islam as the state religion, the Karakhanid Dynasty immediately began its “Jihad” against two Buddhist kingdoms in the Western Regions, Yutian and Gaochang Uighur. The religious war between Karakhanid Dynasty and Yutian broke out first. It was the longest religious war at the largest scale and with the deepest impact in the history of Xinjiang. People sometimes called it the One-hundred-year War. It was a bitter and ugly war. The kingdom of Yutian was annihilated in 1006, but Buddhist resistance continued until about 1062. After that, the over 1,000 years’ rule of Buddhist forces in Yutian came to an end and Buddhism left the southern part of the Tarim Basin.

While the war on Yutian was still going on, Karakhanid Dynasty launched another “Jihad” against Gaochang Uighur Kingdom in 1017. However, due to the fierce resistance la longitud muralla china from Gaochang Uighur and the internal conflicts in the Karakhanid Dynasty, particularly its split into the eastern and Western parts in 1041, the “Jihad” failed without achieving its end, putting a stop for the time being to the Islamic Futuhat by force.

During the reign of the Western Liao Dynasty (1130-1221), the rulers believed in Buddhism but were tolerant towards other religions. In that context, peaceful spread of Islam began. With Kashgar as the centre, Islam was spread along the two routes on the verge of the Tarim Basin, to Yengisar, Yecheng, Shache, Khotan and Qiemo through the southeastern route and to Artux, Bachu and Aksu through the northeastern route. However, Kuqa and Gaochang remained hurdles for Islamic eastward dissemination.


Languages of the Present


In 1124, Khitan noble Yollig Taxin split away from the Liao Kingdom and moved westward. He built the Western Liao Empire and ruled the Western Regions. The major languages used in the Western Liao Dynasty were Chinese and Khitan. Copper seals with Khitan characters on both the front and the back were discovered in Ili, Xinjiang, which proved the use of Khitan language in the Western Liao government. It is assumed that both the Khitan and Chinese officials in the Western Liao government could speak and write Khitan. Yollig Chucai recorded in Volume 8 of Collection of Works of Zhanran Jushi that a Chinese called Li Shichang, who was granted lordship by the Western Liao government, was capable of using Khitan language. In early 13th century, the Mongols wiped out the Western Liao Empire, and Khitan became a dead language.

Among all the ethnic groups that have long settled in Xinjiang, the Han and Hui people use Chinese; the Uygurs, Mongols, Kazak, Kirgiz, Xibe and Russ each have their own spoken and written languages; and the Tajik, Uzbek, Tatar and Daur have their own spoken languages. Other ethnic groups moving into Xinjiang later also have their spoken languages.

(1)     Chinese

Chinese, as a language, belongs to the Chinese subgroup of the Sino-Tibetan family. The Chinese script was the earliest script that was found in the Western Regions. Despite the vicissitudes in languages in the Western Regions throughout its history, Chinese was present almost all the time.

In the 2nd century BC, Zhang Qian was sent by the Han Dynasty as an envoy to the Western Regions, which began the history of the Chinese language in that region. In 60 BC (the 2nd year of

Shenjue reign), the Han government set up Office of Protector of Western Regions; as a result, “decrees of Han reached the Western Regions”, and Chinese became the official spoken and written language among states in that region. According Viaje variedad de establecimientos culturales shanghai to the chapter on the Western Regions in Book of Han, “the total number of such states was fifty, and from the director of translation, director of the city, jun, jian, li, dalu, baizhang to noble and king, all wore seals and ribbons issued by the Han government”. This was the official record of the acceptance of Han rule by states in the Western Regions and the installation of directors of translation to ensure the use of Chinese. Numerous discovered materials provided further evidence for the use of Chinese in all aspects. The use of Chinese script in local governments, military strongholds and commercial goods was exemplified by the “Seal of Guiyi (Allegiance) Qiang in the Han Dynasty” discovered in the old city of Yushgeti in Xayar County, over 70 slips recording the agricultural activities of the military discovered in the site of Tuyin on the northern bank of Lop Nur, and brocade found in the Eastern Han tomb at Niya, with Chinese characters reading “longevity and good luck to posterity” on it. There was another piece discovered in Niya, which was probably a wood slip for presenting gifts, with Chinese words of “Xiuwusongye wishes to pay regards through this jade” on the front and “held by Xiaodazi Jiujian” on the back as well as “Madame Qiemo” on it, showing the penetration of Chinese into the life of average local residents there.

 


Southbound Uighur


After the collapse of the khanate, some Uighur people moved south along the Cantian Khan Road in two groups. The more important group was the “Thirteen Divisions Close to the Kharis Tent’’, headed by Ushi Tegin; the other headed by Great Tegin Wenmos. The two southbound Uighur groups were hostile towards each other; therefore, they went south with different motivations.

The group led by Wenmos and Nashcho became subordinate to the Tang government after entering the area to the south of the desert. The group led by Ushi Tegin consisted of most of “nobles and senior officials”圆 of the previous khanate, who aimed at restoring the khanate. On their route to the south, they recognized Ushi Tegin as Oge Khan. After the Uighur Khanate fell apart, the “Thirteen Divisions Close to the Kharis Tent” was still the focus of attention of all Uighur s. At least in name, Oge Khan was the khan for all divisions of Uighur, including the westbound Uighur. Therefore, before the demise of the southbound Uighur regime, the head of the westbound Uighur Pang Tegin always called himself Yabgou, or the deputy king.

Upon arriving in the south, Oge Khan asked the Tang government for military help to fight Qirqiz in the north, but was turned down. In 847 AD (the 7th year of Huichang reign). Oge was assassinated by his subordinates. The next year, the regime of the southbound Uighur was shattered to pieces, so was the attempt to restore the previous Uighur Khannate.

The two groups of southbound Uighur were estimated to be over 100,000 people, including nearly 50,000 in the group led by Wenmos and over 50,000 led by Oge.^ After the disintegration of the southbound Uighur, most of them entered the Central Plains and mixed with the Han people. As to the group led by Wenmos, some were forced into military service by the Tang government as cavalries, and others settled down near Datong and lived on land farming. In Cave No. 61 at Mogaoku, Dunhuang, there is a fresco of the 10th century about Wutai Mountain in Shanxi, with “Teli Temple’’in it. It was a proof that up until the Five-Dynasty period and early Song Dynasty, the descendants of these Uighur people still lived in that locality in communities. The top brass of the group led by Wenmos later moved to Chang’an, together with their families, and were “given grand mansions at Yonglefang” The 7,000 tents previously under the rule ofNashcho and 30,000 to 40,000 captured and surrendered Uighurs from the group formerly led by Oge Khan were mostly “forced into military service all over the country” by the Tang government Casas de te en beijing,chengdu. They spread very widely, and some were sent as far as the Yangtze and Hui River areas函.In addition, many Uighur cavalries became subordinate to frontier generals of the Tang Dynasty. Li Maoxun and his son Li Keju were such Uighur commanders under the Border Governor of Youzhou Zhang Zhongwu. These Uighur nobles who moved south to the inland achieved many military feats thanks to their brave and able Uighur cavalry troops, and were granted noble titles and official posts by the Tang government, later becoming part of the ruling elite of the central kingdom Particularly, many ethnically Uighur generals played important parts in the conflicts towards the end of the Tang Dynasty and during the Five-Dynasty period


Central Plains in Yizhou(today’s Hami region)


The Tang Dynasty applied the same province-county administration system as that on the Central Plains in Yizhou(today’s Hami region), Xizhou (today’s Turpan region) and Tingzhou (today’s Changji and Urumqi region) in the east of the Western Regions. The province was headed by a Civil Governor, supported by three deputies, called bie-jia, zhang-shi and si-ma, who were in charge of administrative and military affairs respectively. In a province there were 6 divisions sharing responsibilities for protocol, storage, civil households, military affairs, criminal law and construction, each headed by a Staff. The county was headed by a County Magistrate (xian-ling), supported by three deputies, xian-cheng, zhu-bu andxian-wei, each with his own portfolio. Under the level of county there were townships and villages. The head of the township was qi-lao (or fu- lao), and that of the village lizheng. Economically, those administrative divisions in the Western Regions applied the same population-based land distribution system (also known as “Jun-tian-zhf”) and taxation and corvee system (also known as “Zuyong-diao-zhf ”) as those on the Central Plains. Militarily, the Fu-bing-zhi (a peace-time-farmer and-war-timesoldier system) was extended to wider areas in the Western Regions, including both the eastern part and the western areas up to the Congling Mountains. Beyond the Congling Mountains, some areas also had military prefectures set up by the Tang government.

From the above it is clear that the Tang Dynasty had a governance structure in the Western Regions combining the frontier liaison system and the inland province-county system. In fact, the liaison offices served both of the two functions. Such a “parallel”system reflected the transition from the liaison system to a regular sub-national administrative system in the Western Regions, which would put the central government in a better position to apply more direct and tighter control over the Western Regions and enable faster integration between the frontier areas and the Central Plains in their economic and social development. However, the“transitional period” was featured by the “separate governance of the Han and minority people”, although in practice, “the top level was more integrated than the lower ones”. To put it into specifics, the two Offices of Grand Protector of Anxi and Beiting, which together administered the whole Teleferico en terraza arrozales en longsheng of the Western Regions, applied“integrated governance of the Han and minorities”. Under the two Offices of Grand Protectors, there were either provinces or counties of the regular administrative system or Offices of Protectors and Governors of the liaison system, which separated governance of the Han and minorities. The two governance systems even existed in the same area.


Historical Development of the Multi-Ethnic Region


In the early days of the Western Han Dynasty, the city states dotting around the Tarim Basin to the south of the Tianshan Mountains were called the “Thirty-six States”, among which Loulan(northwest of today’s Lop Nur) in the east was the most powerful. To the north of the Tianshan Mountains were the Sak, Usun and Hujie people, who mainly relied on herding for a living, sometimes complemented by hunting. Among those people Usun (near today’s Hami) and Hujie (south of today’s Altay Mountains) were among the strongest. In addition, there were the Jiankun tribe along the upper reach of today’s Yenisei River, and the Dingling people living next to Hujie and Jiankun. Both of the two tribes were subject to the Huns.

States in the Western Regions were very unbalanced in terms of the stage of social development, yet basically they all belonged to the class society. Those states also varied in size, as their population ranged from a thousand to tens of thousands. “States” as they were called, they were nothing more than a group of people with a city or a tribe as their centre. On the whole, the Western Regions were in a state of “no unity, with each group having its own elders and troops”切.

The Huns were at their prime time under the reign of Junchen Chanyu (161 BC to 126 BC), with their influence from the Daxing’ anling Mountains (east) to the Talas River (west of the Western Regions), and from north of the desert (north) to the Great Bend of the Yellow River (south). The ruling body of the Huns was composed of the Royal Court of Chanyu, the Left Prince and the Right Prince. The Royal Court of Chanyu was the centre of the regime, while the Left and Right Princes controlled the east and the west respectively. After being unified by the Huns, the Western Regions were first put under the administration of the Right Prince, and later on, his subordinate, the Rizhu Prince. In 92 BC (the first year of Zhenghe reign) Viajes Dique (waitan) de Shanghái , the Rizhu Prince installed local official in the Western Regions. Known as Tongpu Duwei, that official roamed between Yanqi (today’s Yanqi County), Weixu (southeast of today’s Hoxud County) and Yuli (today’s Ziniquan, south of Yanqi County) and levied taxes and collected tributes from the states there.