Historical Development of the Multi-Ethnic Region


In the early days of the Western Han Dynasty, the city states dotting around the Tarim Basin to the south of the Tianshan Mountains were called the “Thirty-six States”, among which Loulan(northwest of today’s Lop Nur) in the east was the most powerful. To the north of the Tianshan Mountains were the Sak, Usun and Hujie people, who mainly relied on herding for a living, sometimes complemented by hunting. Among those people Usun (near today’s Hami) and Hujie (south of today’s Altay Mountains) were among the strongest. In addition, there were the Jiankun tribe along the upper reach of today’s Yenisei River, and the Dingling people living next to Hujie and Jiankun. Both of the two tribes were subject to the Huns.

States in the Western Regions were very unbalanced in terms of the stage of social development, yet basically they all belonged to the class society. Those states also varied in size, as their population ranged from a thousand to tens of thousands. “States” as they were called, they were nothing more than a group of people with a city or a tribe as their centre. On the whole, the Western Regions were in a state of “no unity, with each group having its own elders and troops”切.

The Huns were at their prime time under the reign of Junchen Chanyu (161 BC to 126 BC), with their influence from the Daxing’ anling Mountains (east) to the Talas River (west of the Western Regions), and from north of the desert (north) to the Great Bend of the Yellow River (south). The ruling body of the Huns was composed of the Royal Court of Chanyu, the Left Prince and the Right Prince. The Royal Court of Chanyu was the centre of the regime, while the Left and Right Princes controlled the east and the west respectively. After being unified by the Huns, the Western Regions were first put under the administration of the Right Prince, and later on, his subordinate, the Rizhu Prince. In 92 BC (the first year of Zhenghe reign) Viajes Dique (waitan) de Shanghái , the Rizhu Prince installed local official in the Western Regions. Known as Tongpu Duwei, that official roamed between Yanqi (today’s Yanqi County), Weixu (southeast of today’s Hoxud County) and Yuli (today’s Ziniquan, south of Yanqi County) and levied taxes and collected tributes from the states there.


Xinjiang is rich in glaciers


There are 570-odd rivers of different volume in Xinjiang. Most of them are continental, originating from mountain glaciers, forming a lake at the end of their route, or simply disappearing in the desert. The major rivers are the Tarim, the Ertix, the Ili and the Kaidu. Running 2,137 kilometers, the Tarim is the longest continental river in China. Originating from the Pamirs, Kunlun and Tianshan Mountains, it winds its way in the northern part of the Tarim Basin before arriving the Titema Lake and Lop Nur. The Ili River is Xinjiang’s biggest continental river in terms of volume. It first twists in the Ili Valley and then flows westward out of China into the Balkhash Lake. The Ertix is the only river in China that flows into the Arctic Ocean. Xinjiang also has a number of lakes, among which 139 are over 1 square kilometer in size, totaling 5,500 square kilometers; 11 are over 100 square kilometers and 4 are over 500 square kilometers. The Bosten Lake amidst the valleys in the Tianshan Mountains is the biggest fresh water lake in Xinjiang. The Aydingkol Lake in the Turpan Depression is the lowest lake in China. The Kanas Lake in the dense forests of the Altay Mountains is a typical ice- eroded lake, with an altitude of 1,370 meters at the surface. The maximum depth of the Kanas is 188.5 meters, making it the second deepest lake in China. The Sayram, a lake on high mountain, is renowned for its “subtle colors, smooth surface, mirrorlike reflection and beauty beyond words”. To the northeast of Urumqi is the Tianchi Lake (or literally, Heavenly Lake) hidden in the depth of the Tianshan Mountains. Small in size, it boasts very nice scenery though. Among other famous lakes are the Ulungur and the Ebinur.

Xinjiang is rich in glaciers, with 18,600 pieces of glaciers totaling 26,300 square kilometers in size, accounting for 21.6% of the mountain glaciers in Asia, and 50% of China’s total glacier reserve. The melting glaciers constitute 21% (about 17 billion cubic meters) of the river volume in Xinjiang China tourbamboo.com. Over 80% of Xinjiang’s arable land is irrigated. The annual surface runoff in the whole region is 88.4 billion cubic meters, extractable underground water 25.2 billion cubic meters, theoretical hydropower reserve 33.5 million kilowatts, and exploitable installed capacity 17.96 million kilowatts.


Thanksgiving Travel Tips


Thanksgiving travel can be stressful, but don’t let getting from here to there set the tone for your entire holiday. Whether traveling near or far, timing is the key to avoiding some of the most typical travel woes of the season.

Driving Or Flying, Choose Well

When driving, plotting a “fastest route” doesn’t mean you’ll arrive sooner since travel during this time can be unpredictable. If traffic is a particular concern, consider a scenic drive that might be longer but less traffic. The scenic route may offer a more pleasant travel experience and could possibly get you to your destination just as quickly.

If you’re flying, book early. If you have gifts to bring back or forth, ship them (or give gift cards) – pack light! Airports are high stress areas, especially over the Thanksgiving holiday. Be sure to plan for the stress of crowds, delays and even cancellations by getting proper rest ahead of your travel time, and bringing only what you will need for your stay. Make sure you have access to all that is important, medications, your ID, emergency information, phone chargers, but don’t over pack – streamline your packing, but plan for a delay – could be an hour… in some cases travel is delayed by a day. Don’t be caught off guard.

Regardless of how you get there, always opt to travel on off-peak days and times, whenever possible – while others will have this idea, many can’t. If you can, be one of those who do. Try to plan your route or layovers to fall outside of any typical rush hour congestion. Travel very late at night or very early in the morning.

Be Flexible & Have Room To Breathe

Give yourself room to breathe. In the unfortunate circumstance that one of the stressors is being at the destination itself, then try to put yourself in vacation mode. Stay at a hotel. Allow for some “me” time during your travel, listen to music or audio books, and watch a movie, do a word puzzle. For some, getting there, is only part of the stress – so remember to make your destination plan as enjoyable as your travel plans.  For more travel news and tips visit my travel blog.       


Tips For Understanding What Green Energy Technology Is All About


Many people do not consider the impact they have on the environment by using everyday appliances. Yet all of your consumption over time can cause real harm to the environment. It is possible to make use of green technology to reduce your home’s impact on the environment. The following tips will give you an idea of how to use green energy. If you have a green energy invention idea InventHelp can help you.

Solar water heaters are a great option and can significantly decrease the cost involved with heating all of the water in your home. This is also a very efficient way to heat water and keep it at the proper temperature. While some upgrades cost more initially, they can qualify you for deductions on your tax return for using green energy.

Instead of using your air conditioner in the summer, try to wear fabrics that are natural. Moisture-wicking athletic fabrics pull moisture away from your skin, creating a cooling sensation. Wear lighter colors since warmer ones can make you warm and cause you to rely on the A/C.

Reduce your energy consumption by unplugging anything that is not in use, especially battery chargers. Whether you are charging your device or not, chargers for laptops, mp3 players, cellphones and other electronics keep drawing electrical power as long as they stay plugged in.

Your furnace filters should be replaced annually, and inspected for monthly cleanings. Also install filters on air registers. This stops debris from blocking heating ducts.

Maintain your refrigerator. Your fridge consumes a ton of energy, so make sure it’s in good shape. Every week, check and see if dust has accumulated near the heating coils. If it has, take the time to remove it. Check the door seal for dirt, debris and leaks.

Get rid of your old water heater and put in a green, tankless one. Even though you still need electricity or gas in order to heat water with these tanks, they use only the water you need instead of always keeping your whole tank heated. Tankless heaters are available in models that supply the entire house or a single faucet with hot water.

Find out about federal and local rebates for updates about renewable energy for your home. In some instances, the local company gives rebates for upgrading to green tech. If not, there might be tax credits or deductions available from the federal or state government. You’ll find that these discounts can effectively reduce the price of adding green energy alternatives into your home.

Choose to get most of your correspondence via email. In other words, go paperless as much as possible. You help both you and other businesses you communicate with save resources and energy. This also keeps the environment in better shape for everyone.

Look around for ways to “go green;” if you want to help conserve natural resources, there are many options available. You don’t have to invest a lot of time or money; simply clean out your furnace filters and adjust your thermostat while you’re gone. Lowering the temperature of your water heater can save energy as well. Every little thing you can do will help.

You should heat your home with biofuel. Oil, wood and animal or vegetable fats are used to make this fuel. In many cases, if your furnace is propane, a professional can make the necessary changes that will allow you to heat with a blend of fuels. Most furnaces use between 20 to 99% bio-diesel fuels. Always consult with professionals prior to using this type of fuel in the home.

If you really want to take a bit out of your fuel consumption, try making more extensive use of carpools, even to destinations other than the office. IF you’ve got kids, create a carpool system with other parents in the neighborhood. If you have friends or family nearby, consider combining grocery trips together, alternating driving duties.

An old, yet good tip, for those looking to save on energy is to turn off your lights whenever you leave a room. Shutting off your lights when you leave a room is a simple act, but it will surprise you by the amount of energy it saves. In addition, you will save money on your utility bill.

Consider changing out a standard toilet for one that is built to save water. Toilets account for fifty percent of the water used in a home. A water-saving toilet cuts that by about 70 percent.

Use automatic motion or sound sensors on the lights in high-traffic rooms. These sensors will turn lights on and off automatically depending on if someone’s in the room, saving energy and money. Add these sensors to your outdoor lights, as well.

Responsible light usage should be a top priority in your home. Don’t turn on the lights until a certain time, during the brighter months. Try using dimmers to reduce the usage of lights.

There are a few ways to conserve energy when you do laundry. You can use a moisture control setting to turn off the dryer when laundry has dried. The spin speed can be set to high to keep the moisture in clothes to a minimum which makes drying time reduced. Clean the dryer filters regularly.

Put your refrigerator and freezer units in a low-temperature location in your home so that they stay cool with less energy. They should be kept out of sunlight as well as away from heating vents. Heat from any source will cause these appliances to run longer.

Investing in a washing machine that is front loading is a great way to go green. Not only do they consume less water than a typical top-loader, they are also more efficient in cleaning your laundry. This will help you save money on both your electricity and water bills.

You may not have thought much about the environment, and you probably aren’t alone. You can start to change, though, now that you have more information about using green energy. Using the tips that were given to you, you can make use of green energy in your home and avoid making a negative impact on the environment.


Visiting The La Ciudad Prohibida


China has always managed to attract its own share of tourists over the past few decades. This country has something to offer and to satisfy the desires of any ardent tourist. In fact, there are multiple reasons that could explain why china has always been the number one tourist destination spot throughout all these years. The capital city of Beijing attracts hordes of interested visitors from all parts of the globe every year. The next time you plan to visit the country, please make it a point to take a tour of the la ciudad prohibida (Forbidden City).

The Forbidden City is one of the world’s most preserved imperial palace that has its own share of stories and adventures. It can be astonishing to learn that this palace has 9,999 rooms and the same complex took care of the residential requirements of at least 24 emperors (who reigned during the Ming and Qing dynasties). The construction of this palace complex took an exhaustive period of 14 years. Emperor Chengzu had ordered the construction of the palace, according to the specifications laid out by the ancient Chinese astrologers. The palace gets the queer name because people required special permissions to enter the palace complex from the emperor.

Currently located just north of the Tiananmen Square, this palace complex has a rectangular shape and covers around 74 hectares. The 10-meter high walls surrounding the complex along with the 52-meter moat are some of the characteristics of the palace. Standing in the Forbidden City, one could get an excellent view of the palace as well as the rest of the neighboring regions. This complex comprised of two sections – termed as the northern and the southern section. It was from the southern section that the emperors ruled firmly over the land while they reserved the northern section of the complex to live with their royal families.

For over five centuries, the Forbidden City served the requirements of many emperors. Perhaps this could explain why the palace complex has many rarities associated with it. One can come across rare curiosities and even treasures in the different parts of the complex. By 1987, the UNESCO listed the site as a world cultural heritage and ever since then, the fame of the palace began to grow with many tourists visiting the location actively throughout the year. It is interesting to note that the actual construction of the complex began in 1407.

By 1420, the construction of the complex was over and in the next year, the reigning emperor shifted the capital city to Beijing. There are different versions of how the workers from far and wide toiled hard in order to complete the construction of the complex. Ingenious construction techniques deployed by the artisans of those eras paved ways for the interesting theories about how all of the different classes of workers must have toiled in tandem. Today, you will come across many tour groups offering comprehensive packages aimed at educating the tourists about the importance of this complex.