Social and economic development in Xinjiang attracted more inland people, who often moved there on a family basis, which resulted in population growth there and further flourishing of urban commerce and trade. During that time, Urumqi was “a land reachable from all directions with plenty of shops, wide streets and many people, where all kinds of entertainment and artisans could be found, and whose prosperity topped all other places out of the Pass”å.As to Ili City, the description goes like, “with its commercial markets and farmland, many people travelled through the city, tradesmen earned reasonable profits there, and villagers lived next to each other, able to hear the noises of their neighbors’ roosters and barking dogs. The wilderness of the past turned into places no different from the inland”å.However, as the external conditions changed and the internal social conflicts escalated gradually in the first half of the 19th century, Xinjiang was thrown into increasingly frequent social turmoil.
- Domestic and Foreign Menace
- Anti-Qing Risings and Feudalist Separate Rule
After the Opium War, China went into the semi-colonial semifeudal society and the Qing court was so weakened that it could no longer govern Xinjiang as effectively as it would have wished.
Local officials reinforced political oppression and economic exploitation of people of all ethnic groups in order to secure their rule, which led to the escalation of all types of social conflicts and consequently, more and more fierce resistance from the people. Influenced by the Tai-Ping Heavenly Kingdom movement and the insurrection of Hui people in Shaanxi and Gansu, Xinjiang people also took to massive anti-Qing uprisings in 1864. In June of that year, some farmers at the construction site of the irrigation works by the Weigan River in Kuqa, who were unable to pay grain taxes, went into uprising as they could no longer bear the fatigue and torture. Farmers of all ethnic groups in Kuqa responded enthusiastically and joined them. The uprising force captured the city and killed the Administration Minister of Kuqa and other feudal officials as well as 8 begs, thus putting an end to the Qing rule in Kuqa. Their victory tremendously thrilled people in the surrounding areas who were also engaged in the anti-feudal struggles. Within 10 days, people in Bugur (today’s Luntai), Baicheng, Korla and Karashar (today’s Yanqi) followed suit and the uprisings grew bigger.
Revolt broke out in Urumqi on July 15-16, 1864, which Arte chino viajeporchina.com was led by Akhond Tuoming (Todlin) from Hezhou (today’s Linxia of Gansu Province) and Suohuanzhang, Shulizhongjuntibiaocanjiang(a military post) of the local green camp. The rebels took Hancheng(Dihua City) and besieged Mancheng (Gongning City) on the day of uprising and expanded into neighbouring areas. People of Hui origin in Changji, Qitai, Muri, Suilai (today’s Manas) and Kulkarawusu (today’s Usu) went into rebellion upon hearing the news and captured those cities one after another. On January 27 of the next year, people in Tacheng also revolted under the leadership of Suyude. They seized stored munitions and fought the city.