(1) Kazakh Language
Kazakh language belongs to the western Hun branch of the Turkic subgroup of the Altaic family. The ancestors of the Kazakh used pictographic and ideographic languages first, and then Turkic and Uighur/Huihu tongue for a long time before switching to Kepqak language based on Chagatai alphabet. At the end of the 15th century and the beginning of the 16th century, the Kazakh people formed their own ethnic group and started to use the Kazakh script based on Arabic alphabet as a way to record their spoken language. In 1912, a scholar of Kazakhstan Ahmed Baitolson (pronunciation) proposed a new scheme for the Kazakh script based on Arabic alphabet, which was accepted and used for nearly four decades after certain improvements by the Kazakh people in Xinjiang. Several reforms took place aferwards, including one new script based on Slavic alphabet and another one based on Roman alphabet. In 1982, the People’s Government of Xinjiang Autonomous Region decided to restore the old script and keep the new one as phonetic symbols only.
(2) Xibe Language
The Xibe people formerly lived in China’s northeast and some of them moved westward as garrison troops in Ili of Xinjiang during the Qianlong reign of Qing Dynasty, whose descendants thus settled down there. The ancient Xibe people spoke Xianbei tongue first and used Jurchen language later. While under the administration of Kerqin Mongols, most of Xibe people began to learn Mongolian, both orally and in writing. At the end of the 17th century, the Xibe people were incorporated into the Manchu Eight-Banner Institution. While keeping their own spoken language, they started to learn the oral and written language of Manchu in a large scale. In 1764(the 29th year of Qianlong reign), the Xibe people who were moving west to Ili took Manchu language and their own spoken language to Xinjiang. In the following 200-plus years, their language underwent new developments, as the vocabulary expanded and the phonetic and grammar system changed and acquired new features. In the light of these new changes, some Xibe language workers improved the language on the basis of Manchu script (such as taking out the 6th vowel letter and 13 syllables based on it, and adding 3 new forms Tibet, mesetas y rios turismo of syllable spelling, etc.) and invented the Xibe script. They also published Grammar of Xibe Language and created and standardized a big number of new terms and expressions.
- Sacred Languages of Religions
The five major religions of the world, Buddhism, Christianity, Manicheism, Juddaism and Islam, one by one, all found their way into China at a certain point in history. Together with the entry of these religions came their respective sacred languages, Sanskrit, Syriac, Pahlavi, Hebrew, Arabic and their corresponding scripts. With the only exception of Hebrew, all of these languages left their mark in Xinjiang.